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Key features and concepts of TypeScript include:
Static Typing: One of the defining features of TypeScript is its static typing system. Developers can explicitly define the types of variables, function parameters, and return values. The TypeScript compiler checks for type compatibility and flags potential errors before runtime.
Interfaces and Types: TypeScript allows the definition of custom data types using interfaces or type aliases. These enable developers to create structured contracts for objects, ensuring that certain properties and methods are present.
Type Inference: TypeScript uses type inference to automatically determine the types of variables and expressions based on their usage. This reduces the need for explicit type annotations while still providing the benefits of static typing.
Enums: Enums provide a way to define a set of named constants. They make code more readable by using human-readable names instead of numerical values.
Generics: TypeScript offers generics, allowing functions, classes, and interfaces to work with a variety of data types while maintaining type safety.
Decorators: Decorators are a way to add metadata to classes, methods, and properties. They are commonly used in frameworks like Angular for creating annotations that affect the behavior of components and services.
Namespace and Module System: TypeScript supports both a global namespace and a module system for organizing code into smaller, more manageable units. Modules help prevent naming conflicts and encourage code encapsulation.
Tooling and IDE Support: TypeScript comes with a rich set of tools, including a compiler that checks for errors, code completion, and better code navigation. Popular Integrated Development Environments (IDEs) like Visual Studio Code offer excellent support for TypeScript.